format

The format of DP4DW in this paper is composed of the following 8 elements.

Name
“Name”describes the name of the design pattern.

Area
“Area” describes the country and region where the contexts arise. The reason for putting Area at the beginning of the format is that the following elements depend on each area.

Context
“Context” describes the situation around a design pattern. The situation means the elements which are extracted as specific parts from phenomenon which appeared to the designers during a survey before fieldwork and during fieldwork. Based on the PESTLE Model, the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental elements should be described.

“Political” (P) describes the elements which explain the influence that a government may have over the environment where a project such as a business cycle, economic or industrial activity is being conducted. For example, the political elements include tax policies, fiscal policy and trade tariffs.

“Economic” (E) describes the economic elements, including world-wide economic trends and the long-term effects. This includes inflation rates, interest rates, foreign exchange rates and economic growth patterns.

‘Social’ (S) describes the socio-cultural elements such as cultural trends, gauge determinants, demographics, population analytic or impact of the mixture of different cultures.

“Technological” (T) describes the technological trends in the environment where you conduct your project. This covers the frequency of innovation and the extent to which they directly or indirectly influence the business being started up.

“Legal” (L) describes laws or policies which directly influence the project being conducted. These will be social laws related to medical services, public welfare, sanitation and labour or regulatory laws.

“Environmental” (E) describes the ecological and environmental aspects of the project. Not only is it necessary to survey the ecology and environment in depth but it is also necessary to consider the direct or indirect influences which the environment has on the project. In addition to these six elements, people’s ‘interest’ as a qualitative element needs to be described.

Problem
“Problem” describes an issue which should be solved based on the context. Even if the contexts are the same, we have the possibility of there being many different problems to be solved.

Example
“Example” describes a product, service or application which is developed for the problem. This element should include photos and drawings. Also, even if the problem is the same, we have the possibility of there being many different examples.

Challenge
“Challenge” describes the challenges which can occur when the design pattern is being used. It is necessary to record include how each challenge is solved.

Category
“Category” describes the categories where each design pattern should be included. We have adopted the same five targets as BOP protocol by ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers): Health, Energy, Transportation, Food/Water, and Housing. In addition to them, we have added three elements: Use, Learning, and Income Generated. These are related to types of user engagement. Thus, a category should be described by means of a matrix with targets and an explanation of the type of engagements being carried out (Table1).

Use Learn Generate Income
Health
Energy
Transportation
Food & Water
Housing

Impact
“Impact” describes the sustained influence of three factors: society, the economy and the environment. Social impact describes what kinds of sustainable influences can be produced when a product is installed in a community, area, or country. Economic impact describes what kinds of holistic and sustainable influences can be created when a product is installed. Finally, environmental impact describes what kinds of sustainable influences can be reflected when a product is widespread in the whole of the developing world.